Ellsberg surrendered to authorities in Boston, and admitted that he had given the papers to the press: "I felt that as an American citizen, as a responsible citizen, I could no longer cooperate in concealing this information from the American public. I did this clearly at my own jeopardy and I am prepared to answer to all the consequences of this decision". Byrne ruled: "The totality of the circumstances of this case which I have only briefly sketched offend a sense of justice. The bizarre events have incurably infected the prosecution of this case.
In March , political scientist Samuel L. Popkin , then assistant professor of Government at Harvard University , was jailed for a week for his refusal to answer questions before a grand jury investigating the Pentagon Papers case, during a hearing before the Boston Federal District Court. The Faculty Council later passed a resolution condemning the government's interrogation of scholars on the grounds that "an unlimited right of grand juries to ask any question and to expose a witness to citations for contempt could easily threaten scholarly research".
Gelb estimated that The New York Times only published about five percent of the study's 7, pages. The Beacon Press edition was also incomplete. Halperin, who had originally classified the study as secret, obtained most of the unpublished portions under the Freedom of Information Act and the University of Texas published them in The National Security Archive published the remaining portions in The study itself remained formally classified until The Pentagon Papers revealed that the United States had expanded its war with the bombing of Cambodia and Laos, coastal raids on North Vietnam, and Marine Corps attacks, none of which had been reported by the American media.
For example, the Eisenhower administration actively worked against the Geneva Accords. The John F. Kennedy administration knew of plans to overthrow South Vietnamese leader Ngo Dinh Diem before his death in a November coup.photewessogen.gq/coupons-colonial-williamsburg.php
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President Johnson had decided to expand the war while promising "we seek no wider war" during his presidential campaign,  including plans to bomb North Vietnam well before the Election. President Johnson had been outspoken against doing so during the election and claimed that his opponent Barry Goldwater was the one that wanted to bomb North Vietnam.
In another example, a memo from the Defense Department under the Johnson Administration listed the reasons for American persistence:. Another controversy was that President Johnson sent combat troops to Vietnam by July 17, , before pretending to consult his advisors on July 21—27, per the cable stating that " Deputy Secretary of Defense Cyrus Vance informs McNamara that President had approved 34 Battalion Plan and will try to push through reserve call-up. In , when that cable was declassified, it revealed "there was a continuing uncertainty as to [Johnson's] final decision, which would have to await Secretary McNamara's recommendation and the views of Congressional leaders, particularly the views of Senator [Richard] Russell.
Nixon's Solicitor General Erwin N. Griswold later called the Pentagon Papers an example of "massive overclassification" with "no trace of a threat to the national security. After the release of the Pentagon Papers , Goldwater said:. During the campaign, President Johnson kept reiterating that he would never send American boys to fight in Vietnam.
As I say, he knew at the time that American boys were going to be sent. In fact, I knew about ten days before the Republican Convention. You see I was being called a trigger-happy, warmonger, bomb happy, and all the time Johnson was saying, he would never send American boys, I knew damn well he would. Senator Birch Bayh , who thought the publishing of the Pentagon Papers was justified, said:. The existence of these documents, and the fact that they said one thing and the people were led to believe something else, is a reason we have a credibility gap today, the reason people don't believe the government.
This is the same thing that's been going on over the last two-and-a-half years of this administration. There is a difference between what the President says and what the government actually does, and I have confidence that they are going to make the right decision, if they have all the facts. Les Gelb reflected in that many people have misunderstood the most important lessons of the Pentagon Papers :.
And look, because we'd never learned that darn lesson about believing our way into these wars, we went into Afghanistan and we went into Iraq. The full release was coordinated by the Archives's National Declassification Center NDC as a special project to mark the anniversary of the report. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. United States government-created history of the United States' involvement with Vietnam. This article is about the U.
A Wartime Organization for Unconventional Warfare (U.S. National Park Service)
Government documents. For the film, see The Pentagon Papers film. Main article: China containment policy. Main article: New York Times Co. United States. Retrieved July 2, The New York Times. Retrieved August 3, June 23, Retrieved October 23, How We Got Here: The '70s. The Washington Post. Retrieved October 26, Watergate prosecutors find a memo addressed to John Ehrlichman describing in detail the plans to burglarize the office of Pentagon Papers defendant Daniel Ellsberg's psychiatrist, The Post reports.
May 11, Retrieved November 4, History U. TV channel. What the Press and "The Post" Missed. On The Media. February Air Force Magazine. June 28, Office of the Historian. National Archives and Records Administration. Archived from the original PDF on 9 August Retrieved 28 October Archived from the original PDF on August 9, Retrieved October 28, He ran agents behind the Iron Curtain in the early 's. He was the C. He was the man through whom the United States gave the generals tacit approval as they planned the assassination of South Vietnam's President, Ngo Dinh Diem, in November McCone July 28, Retrieved April 17, United States Case".
Archived from the original on December 4, Retrieved December 5, Democracy Now! Archived from the original on July 3, United States, U. Times Co. Archived from the original on December 2, Simon and Schuster. Ground Strategy and Force Deployments, ," Boston: Beacon Press. Federation of American Scientists, Secrecy News.
Retrieved May 13, Surveillance with high-technology equipment on the ground or from high-altitude planes and satellites has become an important espionage technique see Cuban Missile Crisis. The development of the Internet has created opportunities for espionage through hacking into foreign government and private computers, through electronic surveillance of Internet and network traffic, and through the use of trojan horses, key loggers, and such computer programs.
Code making and code breaking see cryptography have become computerized and very effective. The threat of foreign espionage is used as an excuse for internal suppression and the suspension of civil rights in many countries. Espionage is a very important part of guerrilla warfare and counterinsurgency.
The defensive side of intelligence activity, i. Under international law , intelligence activities are not illegal; however, every nation has laws against espionage conducted against it. History Beginnings through the Nineteenth Century The importance of espionage in military affairs has been recognized since the beginning of recorded history. The Egyptians had a well-developed secret service, and spying and subversion are mentioned in the Iliad and in the Bible. The ancient Chinese treatise c. In the Middle Ages , political espionage became important.
With the growth of the modern national state, systematized espionage became a fundamental part of government in most countries. During the American Revolution , Nathan Hale and Benedict Arnold achieved fame as spies, and there was considerable use of spies on both sides during the U.
Civil War. In the Twentieth Century By World War I , all the great powers except the United States had elaborate civilian espionage systems and all national military establishments had intelligence units. To protect the country against foreign agents, the U. Congress passed the Espionage Statute of Mata Hari , who obtained information for Germany by seducing French officials, was the most noted espionage agent of World War I.
In the Office of Strategic Services was founded by Gen. William J.
However, the British system was the keystone of Allied intelligence. Russia and the Soviet Union have had a long tradition of espionage ranging from the Czar's Okhrana to the Committee for State Security the KGB , which also acted as a secret police force. In addition to these, the United States has 13 other intelligence gathering agencies; most of the U. Under the intelligence reorganization of , the director of national intelligence is responsible for overseeing and coordinating the activities and budgets of the U. During the cold war , many Soviet intelligence officials defected to the West, including Gen.
Burgess and Donald D. Martin and Bernon F. Mitchell, U. China has a very cost-effective intelligence program that is especially effective in monitoring neighboring countries. Smaller countries can also mount effective and focused espionage efforts. The Vietnamese Communists, for example, had consistently superior intelligence during the Vietnam War.
Israel probably has the best espionage establishment in the world. Some of the Muslim countries, especially Libya, Iran, and Syria, have highly developed operations as well. Iran's Savak was particularly feared by Iranian dissidents before the Iranian Revolution. Bibliography See A. Rowan and R. Friedman, Advanced Technology Warfare ; G. Treverton, Covert Action ; J. Keegan, Intelligence in War ; M. Sulick, Spying in America Gender and sex play a very large role in fantasies about espionage, but the reality is not quite so turgid. Open-source intelligence about spies indicates that most espionage is done primarily by heterosexual men for money.
There is evidence that this is the result of discrimination against women. When permitted to take on such duties, most women have performed with distinction. In addition, there is some evidence that the Central Intelligence Agency CIA and possibly MI6, have homophobic attitudes, though that history awaits writing. A spy is a person who gathers information on his or her own country and gives it to a case officer who is from another country.
Espionage does not usually include covert operations; it is mainly the gathering of information. In time of war, however, the two may be difficult to distinguish. A mole is a person within the intelligence services who performs espionage for the enemy. Open source intelligence is any information that can be gathered through reading, nonclandestine observation, or open conversation. The vast majority of intelligence is open source and so involves no espionage.
Although most espionage is not necessarily clandestine, the clandestine aspect of espionage—the secret meetings, special tradecraft knowledge, copying of sensitive documents, altered identities, living in romantic or dangerous places—is fertile ground for human fantasies. The depiction of female spies in Western fiction has undergone dramatic change from their introduction in the late nineteenth century through two world wars. At first there were not very many female spies in fiction because spying was not regarded as a feminine activity.
Thus while early fictional descriptions made women spies seductive, it also portrayed them as ruthless. Literature has influenced the depiction of actualities. The real examples of women spying in World War I demonstrate that a woman could be patriotic and feminine, if not independent and sexual. Female spies from other countries, however, were depicted as despicable and sexually corrupt. After the Spanish civil war — , even with the move in literature generally to realism, female spies became a venue for fantasies of bravura and seductiveness. The press reflects these fictional depictions of female spies in depictions of women spies who were caught.
The women fall into a few stereotypical categories: the overbearing communist woman, the evil German traitor, or the femme fatale. Indeed, the press compares real women spies with the stereotype, as they did with Elizabeth Bender, the case officer running American citizens as spies for the Soviet Union , and with Ethel Rosenberg — Bender, portrayed as the "spy queen" in the press, was simply not sexy enough for either the press or the American public.
Rosenberg was caught in the press's conflicting stereotypes of fiction's seductive female spy and U. Kim Philby — , the noted British mole, was also homosexual, as were the four other moles from his Cambridge University graduating class.
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It is unclear whether the homosexuality of all five was the result of a college rite of passage, youthful sexual experimentation, or a sexual preference, but much has been made of that preference as a sign of the sexual debauchery involved in espionage. Again, however, illusion and reality conflict because more than 95 percent of spies who have been caught in the United States are actually heterosexual. Mata Hari — , the Dutch music hall dancer, may be the most famous female spy, but she is far from the most typical either in reality or fantasy.
The women chosen to serve in intelligence agencies by the U. Most of these women serve in important back office roles, as file clerks, code breakers, and even wardrobe mistresses for covert operations and surveillance. The role of file clerk may seem unimportant, but an intelligence service's ability to recall information using the tiniest detail, such as a large black mole on the right cheek versus a large hairy brown mole on the right cheek, can be the key to completing a particular mission. Women fulfilled these roles more often than they fulfilled others.
Julia McWilliams, better known now as Julia Child — , the "French Chef," was posted first to Ceylon now Sri Lanka and later to China where her sole job was to keep track of the massive amounts of information flowing through those arenas, primarily using three-by-five-inch index cards. The first American code breaker assigned to the Soviet Union 's "Venona" code was a woman with very high math aptitude. Venona was the code used by Soviet spies in the United States to pass messages to Moscow. The code used "one-time" pads where the code is known only to the sender and receiver and is never repeated.
This female code breaker was put in a room with tens of thousands of coded messages and told to break the code by finding patterns. Later she became part of a team that eventually began to break the codes because the Soviets used the one-time pads more than once in order to economize. Particularly during World War II , women were assigned to gather appropriate clothing and to train covert agents to behave like the characters they were playing. The care for detail with which this was undertaken is remarkable. The wardrobe mistresses, such as Evangeline Bell and Marjorie Levenson, worked very hard to ensure buttons were sewn on, cigarettes were smoked, and ID cards stamped in a way that would permit the agent to fit smoothly into the society in which spying was being performed.
Women involved in espionage have also worked as translators and refugee interviewers, but only rarely have they been given work rising to their levels of competence. Women during World War II were not assigned the task of decision-making or running a station. In the early twenty-first century, women rise to become station or even region chief, but the upper levels of intelligence agencies are still primarily male. The exception was Stella Rimington b.
Sex plays diverse roles within espionage. The "swallows" were Soviet women who were instructed to create romantic and sexual relations with male foreign nationals for the purposes of blackmail. Mossad, the Israeli intelligence service, has used "swallows" to gather information on neighboring Arab states, most notably just prior to the war. Sexual liaisons have also been used as a ruse by partners in espionage as an excuse for being locked behind embassy doors in order to hide yet more illicit behavior such as safecracking.
The British and U. Sex and gender play large roles within espionage, but primarily through discrimination, fantasy, and homophobia. Barron, John. New York : Reader's Digest Press. Craig, Patricia, and Mary Cadogan.
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London: Victor Gollancz. McIntosh, Elizabeth P. Olmsted, Kathryn S. Rimington, Stella. London: Hutchinson. Wood, Suzanne, and Martin F. It can involve the analysis of diplomatic reports, publications, statistics, and broadcasts, as well as spying, a clandestine activity carried out by an individual or individuals working under a secret identity for the benefit of a nation's information gathering techniques. In the United States , the organization that heads most activities dedicated to espionage is the Central Intelligence Agency.
In July , a split panel of the U. Circuit Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit vacated the judgment of a federal district court and ruled that plaintiffs challenging government spying under the National Security Agency NSA lacked legal standing to sue. The NSA operated a program providing for interception monitoring, wiretapping of communications involving any individuals with suspected ties to al Qaeda a terrorist organization widely held as being a key player in attacks against the United States without first getting a courtissued warrant.
In February , the U. Supreme Court denied review of the appellate court's decision. ACLU v. NSA , F. According to facts summarized in the Sixth Circuit's opinion, sometime after the terrorist attacks upon the United States on September 11, , President Bush authorized the NSA to commence a counter-terrorism operation ultimately referred to as the Terrorist Surveillance Program TSP. Specifics of the program were classified and therefore undisclosed. Notwithstanding, it was publicly acknowledged that the TSP included interception e.
The original case was filed in federal circuit court in Detroit, Michigan by the American Civil Liberties Union ACLU , representing a conglomerate plaintiff group that included journalists, academics, and lawyers. Together, they charged that their writings and research often caused them to visit or search Internet Web sites that used keyword searches that could be construed as suspicious under government surveillance programs. Moreover, they often placed or received international telephone calls to and from clients or colleagues in geographic locations that would also flag their communications for possible interception or surveillance.
They also charged that two aspects of the TSP, warrantless wiretapping and data mining, violated the First and Fourth Amendments of the U. Reynolds , U. The doctrine had two components, a rule of evidentiary privilege, and a rule of non-justiciability where the subject matter of the lawsuit itself is a state secret, such that a claim cannot survive.
In the present case, the NSA argued that, without the privileged evidentiary information, none of the plaintiffs could establish standing to sue. The NSA did provide the district court an opportunity to review certain secret documents, in camera and under seal, in support of their invoking of the state secrets privilege. The district court also held that the program violated the First Amendment because such government spying tended to have a chilling effect on free speech.
Individuals fearing government monitoring might curtail otherwise protected political or legal speech or activity. The district court also granted a permanent injunction against continued operation of the TSP. But the Sixth Circuit vacated the decision, particularly noting that the district court had premised its entire ruling on the three publiclyacknowledged facts about NSA operations, i. The appellate court went on to mention that standing was an aspect of justiciability, meaning that there must first be a careful judicial examination of whether any plaintiff only one needed had standing that would entitle him or her to an adjudication of the substantive claims.
Further, the court found the plaintiffs had not claimed any separate injury specifically tied to the alleged NSA datamining program, making that claim unjusticiable as well. Having found that plaintiffs lacked standing to sue, all claims fell and the appellate court vacated the district court's decision and remanded with instructions to dismiss plaintiffs' claims. The Sixth Circuit did not reach the issue of whether the lawsuit was moot after the Bush Administration announced in January that a FISA court had approved the communication interception program. The original district court decision was in The act of securing information of a military or political nature that a competing nation holds se cret.
It can involve the analysis of diplomatic re ports, publications, statistics, and broadcasts, as well as spying, a clandestine activity carried out by an individual or individuals working under a secret identity for the benefit of a nation's information gathering techniques. In September , federal prosecutors charged Donald W. Keyser, a year veteran with the State Department, with deliberately covering up a trip to Taiwan in violation of U.
Although Keyser was not charged with espionage, the case has presented a number of questions about his interactions with officials from Taiwan. Since , the United States has maintained a so-called "one China" policy, under which the U. Since that time, the U. Because China and Taiwan are adversaries, both sides are sensitive to the relationship of the U.
China has reportedly been distressed over the apparent willingness of President George W. Bush to sell arms to Taiwan. Conversely, Taiwan became concerned when Bush stated to China's prime minister , Wen Jiabao, that he would not support a move toward formal independence by Taiwan. Experts referred to Bush's statement as "embarrassing, humiliating for Taiwan. Keyser attended the now-defunct Stanford Center of National Taiwan University as a student in the late s and early s.
He joined the State Department in and developed an expertise in Chinese policy. Keyser, who speaks fluent Mandarin Chinese, held positions in China and Japan.
He later served in senior positions in the federal government dealing with Asian affairs. Keyser eventually assumed the position of deputy director of the Bureau of Intelligence and Research, a part of the State Department. He became embroiled in an internal controversy in , when former Secretary of State Madeleine K.
Albright suspended him for 30 days after an incident involving a stolen laptop computer. The computer reportedly contained sensitive weapons information. Although Keyser's supervisor, J. Stapleton Roy, a U. As of , Keyser held the position of principal deputy assistant secretary of state. He was heavily involved in American policy in East Asia. According to court documents filed by the.
Federal Bureau of Investigation , Keyser visited China on official government business on August 31, After traveling to Tokyo on official business, he allegedly visited Taiwan on a three-day trip. Because the U. Reports indicate that Keyser's superior, James A. Kelly, assistant secretary of state for East Asian and Pacific Affairs, would have vetoed any request to visit Taiwan on official business.
Because Keyser possessed a top-secret security clearance, he was required to report all of his foreign trips. He did not report the trip to Taiwan through submission of the prescribed form. Other U. Although he failed to report his Taiwan visit, Keyser made no effort to conceal the visit. According to these reports, the U. A Washington-based newsletter entitled the Nelson Report noted that Keyser "was clearly making no effort to conceal his trip.
The FBI began to tail Keyser during the spring and summer of Keyser resigned from his position in the State Department on July 30, As the three men left the restaurant, the FBI agents stopped them and seized the six-page document. The affidavit indicated that the document contained information "derived from material to which Keyser had access as a result of his employment with the Department of State.
Federal prosecutors filed a criminal complaint against Keyser on September 15, in the U. The complaint only charged Keyser with concealing his trip to Taiwan. Court documents did not indicate whether Keyser had provided any classified documents to the Taiwanese agents, although news reports suggested that additional charges could be filed at a later date. The FBI's affidavit also does not indicate any improper motive on Keyser's part to visit Taiwan or to provide documents illegally to Taiwanese officials.
Nothing in the criminal charge indicates that Keyser received money from the Taiwanese government. Keyser reportedly told the FBI agents that he was sightseeing in Taiwan during this visit there. He did not inform anyone of the trip, including his wife, who is an officer with the Central Intelligence Agency. Experts reportedly expressed surprise that Keyser would visit Taiwan immediately after visiting China.
According to a former high-ranking State Department official, "The whole idea that he could take a trip like this that was not authorized while he was deputy assistant secretary is ludicrous to me. People in that position don't just move around anonymously. Espionage is the use of spies, or the practice of spying, for the purpose of obtaining information about the plans, activities, capabilities, or resources of a competitor or enemy. It is closely related to intelligence, but is often distinguished from it by virtue of the clandestine, aggressive, and dangerous nature of the espionage trade.
The term espionage comes from a French word meaning to spy. The Middle French espionner appears to be related to the Old Italian spione, which in turn is linguistically akin to the Old High German spehon. This is interesting philologically, since French, Italian, and German have very different historic roots: the first two derived from the Latin of the Roman Empire , while the third comes from the language of the Romans' "barbarian" foes across the Rhine. It is perhaps fitting that the very etymology of espionage would reflect surreptitious connections.
A brief history. Though the word itself entered the English language from the French in , at a time when the foundations of modern espionage were being laid, the concept of espionage is as old as civilization. Ancient and classical era scripts often mention spies and the use of espionage e. The roots of espionage in the East are likewise very deep: in the third century b. Despite this early evidence of organized spying in east Asia , espionage tended to be an ad hoc enterprise until the late eighteenth century.
The reign of terror that followed the French Revolution — significantly, in — marked the beginnings of the modern totalitarian police state, while the American Revolution a few years earlier saw the beginnings of a consistent interface between military operations and intelligence. Military intelligence came into its own during the American Civil War , while the late nineteenth century saw the birth of the first U.
The twentieth century and beyond. Espionage reached a new level of maturity in World War I. Although Mata Hari may. The war also gave birth to the first true totalitarian state, in Russia , and this was followed soon afterward by the establishment of fascism in Italy. Totalitarianism spawned its own elaborate spy networks, and increased the requirements for espionage activities on the part of democracies, as evidenced by the U.
The era that perhaps most commonly comes to mind at the mention of the word espionage is the Cold War , which lasted from the end of World War II to the fall of the Berlin Wall and the Soviet empire. Yet the end of Soviet communism was certainly not the end of espionage, a fact that became dramatically apparent as new U.
In any case, espionage is not solely the enterprise of governments: companies have long sought to gain the advantage over competitors through the use of economic or industrial espionage. In a world increasingly dominated by huge corporations, economic espionage is not likely to disappear. Nor is espionage only undertaken against enemies: the United States has captured, and punished, spies who passed U. Bennett, Richard M. Espionage: An Encyclopedia of Spies and Secrets.
London: Virgin Books, Dulles, Allen Welsh. The Craft of Intelligence. Haynes, John Earl. Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America. Martin, David C. Wilderness of Mirrors. Wright, Peter.
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New York : Viking, E spionage, the use of spies to obtain military and political secrets, is as old as human history. During the Middle Ages , states resorted to espionage from time to time, typically in periods of crisis.